Updated: Oct 12, 2020

International Flavour Profiles

I recently returned from China where I fell in love with the elusive Sichuan peppercorn… it literally numbs your tongue! I’ve included the Sichuan peppercorn in my Chinese 5 spice blend for years but have never considered it on its own. Many of us have an international palate but have you ever wondered why certain ingredients connect us to the ethnic foods we love?

It’s because of the trinities of cuisine. In cooking, an aromatic trio creates national flavour foundations for sauces, soups, stews and stir-fries which the personality of the dish is built on.

Cooking specific vegetables, herbs or spices in fat releases their flavour infusing them into quintessential flavour bases.

The holy trinity is the cornerstone of flavours that give that typical, instantly recognizable taste.

You’ve probably heard of the most classic French trinity of carrots, onions and celery called mirepoix. And perhaps the most notorious Creole trinity of green pepper, onions and celery called Cajun holy trinity? But do you know of the less common Spanish trio of garlic, onion and tomato called sofrito? Globally accepted cooking trinities with classic dishes: Africa: chili peppers, onion and tomato in dende oil. Jollof Rice Brazil: coconut milk, onion and malagueta pepper in dende oil. Moqueca Louisiana: Cajun holy trinity – onion, bell pepper and celery in corn oil. Gumbo & Jambalaya China: northern – scallion, ginger, and garlic in sesame oil. Peking Duck Sauce southern – chili, Sichuan peppercorn and white pepper in sesame oil. Kung Pow Sauce Cuba: sofrito – garlic, bell pepper and Spanish onion in olive oil. Ropa Vieja France: mirepoix – onion, carrot and celery in butter. Beef Bourguignon Greece: lemon juice, garlic and oregano in olive oil. Souvlaki Hungary: paprika, garlic and onion in lard. Goulash India: garlic, ginger and onion in ghee. Korma Italy: soffritto – northern – carrot, onion and fennel in olive oil. Minestrone – southern – garlic, tomato and basil in olive oil. Sorrentina Sauce Jamaica: garlic, scallion and thyme in coconut oil. Callaloo Japan: dashi, mirin and soy sauce (holy trinity sauces, not necessarily cooked together). Indonesia: garlic, ginger and scallion in sesame oil. Satay Sauce Lebenon: garlic, onion, lemon juice and in olive oil. Baba Ganoush Mexico: ancho, pasilla and guajillo chili pepper in corn oil. Chili Colorado Portugal: refogado – onion, garlic and tomato in olive oil. Caldeirada Spain: sofrito – garlic, onion and tomato in olive oil. Paella Thailand: galangal, kaffir lime and lemon grass in coconut oil. Tom Yum


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